The standard I will be unpacking is the Arizona Kindergarten math standard for the area of Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA) K.OA.A
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. The specific standard is K.0A.A.1 Represent addition and subtraction concretely. The source of the standard is ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HIGH ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR STUDENTS (December, 2016)
I choose this standard for developing a unit as it is something students will need to know and use for the rest of their lives, whether its counting change at their first job or figuring out how much more money they need to buy something one day, addition and subtraction are fundamental skills that students will use. There is quite a lot of content that will go into this unit allowing it to span 4-5 weeks or longer with may lessons within the unit.
By the end of this unit students will be proficient in addition and subtraction in several different forms. Students will have a concrete understanding of the concepts of addition and subtraction with “result unknown” (Ex-“Two bunnies sat on the grass. Three more bunnies hopped there. How many bunnies are on the grass now? 2 +3 = ?”). Students will also have a concrete understanding of “change unknown” (Ex-“Five apples were on the table. I ate some apples. Then there were three apples. How many apples did I eat? 5 – ? =3”) as well as “start unknown” (Ex- “Some bunnies were sitting on the grass. Three more bunnies hopped there. Then there were five bunnies. How many bunnies were on the grass before? ? + 3 =5”)
Students will also be proficient in recognizing important mathematical symbols (+, -, =). These mathematical symbols will be important for students to be able to recognize and differentiate in future application.
In addition to being proficient at recognizing and differentiating mathematical symbols students will also be proficient with mathematical vocabulary like, subtract, add, take away, equation, fluency, subitize, plus, minus and equals.
The unit will have two summative assessments. One assessment will focus on addition skills. The assessment will contain several different forms of addition problems. The other summative assessment will focus on subtraction skills. The assessment will contain several different forms of subtraction problems. Using multiple strategies taught throughout the unit the expectation is that 81% or higher will show mastery.
A formative assessment that will be used during this unit will be teacher observations. So much of kindergarten assessing is done through observations. I will observe each of their progress when they are working with a peer, when we are practicing on white boards as well as playing small group games.
Both of the summative assessments would be given whole group with the teacher reading the directions to each problem aloud with the assessment showing on the over head projector. Students will have time to answer each question as the teacher walks around observing answers. Each assessment will also contain pictures to assist ELL students.
During small group math centers students will get an opportunity to do hands on math. One activity they will do during this unit in small groups to deepen their understanding of subtraction will be a game called “subtraction smash”. Students will each have a laminated 10 frame game board and a container of play doh. Students will pull different subtraction cards that tell them how many play doh balls to make and than how many to smash. At the bottom of the 10-frame board students will practice writing the equation and answering it.
Another activity during small group math centers would be to have students partner up and take turns playing teacher and student with addition and subtraction flashcards. It allows students both an opportunity to answer the question and also verify if the other person is correct. Students could use manipulative for this activity in the early stages.
Lastly students will practice addition using dice adding the numbers on two dice to find a total. Students will be able to have fun with this skill with worksheets called “Roll, Add and Color” where each number answer correlates with a color to complete a picture.
Thank you for reading,
- (2016, December). Arizona Mathematics Standards-Kindergarten. Retrieved January 20, 2018, from https://cms.azed.gov/home/GetDocumentFile?id=58546eb8aadebe13008c1a18